Current Antibody-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

  Abstract: Despite continued and considerable progress following the introduction of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease, and new therapeutic […]

Incorporating Monoclonal Antibodies Into the Management of Multiple Myeloma

  H&O  How do monoclonal antibodies work? TM  Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins (Igs) that are generated and manufactured to target a specific antigen present on a […]

Novel Agents for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world. Currently, the most effective treatment for CLL consists of a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. Although this approach has encouraging results, patients with CLL eventually relapse and require additional therapies. Many of the current therapeutic regimens for CLL are myelotoxic, immunosuppressive, and associated with infectious complications. Targeted therapies can often minimize these complications. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved 2 agents, bendamustine and ofatumumab, for the treatment of CLL. Emerging therapies ranging from new monoclonal antibodies to small molecules that interfere with vital pathways in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation are currently being developed. This article will focus on novel agents in earlier development phases for CLL, including the immunomodulator lenalidomide; monoclonal antibodies, such as lumiliximab, GA-101, and small molecule immunopharmaceuticals; BCL-2 inhibitors, such as oblimersen, obatoclax, and ABT-263; and protein kinase inhibitors, such as flavopiridol, spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors.

Castleman Disease in the 21st Century: An Update on Diagnosis, Assessment, and Therapy

Abstract: Castleman disease (CD) is a nonclonal lymphoproliferative disorder that can affect single lymph node stations or, alternatively, can be generalized. Interleukin 6 (IL6) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of CD. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), which encodes a viral homolog of IL6, is the driving force in HIV-positive patients. The role of HHV8 in HIV-negative CD is controversial. Historically, the prognosis of patients with generalized or multicentric CD has been thought to be poor. However, CD responds extremely well to monoclonal antibodies directed at the IL6 receptor or IL6 itself, and in general, the long-term outcome of HIV-negative CD is excellent. Important strides forward have also been made in the management of HIV-positive CD.