H&O Which patients with melanoma are candidates for checkpoint inhibition? GM All patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma—stage IV and unresectable stage III disease—are candidates for checkpoint […]
H&O What makes BRAF inhibition a good approach to the treatment of melanoma? BC BRAF inhibitors, especially when combined with MEK inhibitors, are an excellent […]
H&O Which MEK inhibitors have been approved for use in melanoma? DJ The US Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 MEK inhibitors for use in […]
H&O How common is uveal melanoma, including metastatic uveal melanoma? RC Uveal melanoma is rare, with an incidence of approximately 5 cases per million people […]
H&O How common are BRAF mutations in patients with melanoma? MA Approximately 50% of patients with melanoma have a V600E or V600K mutation in BRAF, each […]
H&O What is the definition of tumor and T-cell metabolism as it applies to cancer? GD The term metabolism is defined as the set of pathways […]
Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology February 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2 Omid Hamid, MD Chief of Research/Immuno-Oncology Director of Melanoma Program The Angeles Clinic and […]
Abstract: Metastatic melanoma remains an aggressive malignancy conferring a very poor prognosis, and standard chemotherapeutic and immunologic treatments have not demonstrated an overall survival benefit. No molecularly targeted therapy is approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous malignancy, and optimal treatment in a given patient is likely to depend on the presence of specific molecular abnormalities. Aberrations in components of signal transduction pathways have been identified that modulate melanoma proliferation and survival. Mutations that activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway via BRAF or NRAS are present in the majority of melanomas arising on skin intermittently exposed to the sun. Mutations that activate the KIT oncogene are more commonly present in melanomas arising from mucosal, acral, or chronic sun-damaged sites. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway and of KIT are currently undergoing clinical investigation. In this article, we review advances in targeted strategies to treat different subgroups of patients with melanoma.